_________________________ regulates BMR

_________________________ makes lymphocyte immunocompetent

_________________________ released when blood levels of Calcium drop

_________________________ Essential hormone for uptake of glucose by body cells 

_________________________ Insulin antagonist; increases blood sugar level

_________________________ regulates body water balance; produced by hypothalamus

_________________________ secreted in long term stress situations(long term illness, surgery)

_________________________ fight and flight hormone; increases heart rate and force of contraction

_________________________ causes milk production

_________________________ produced by adrenal cortex; regulates salt level

_________________________ male hormones

_________________________ protein to which testosterone attaches in blood

_________________________ tropic hormone that regulates the
production of thyroid hormone

_________________________ tropic hormone that regulates the
production of glucocorticoids

_________________________ causes the conversion of angiotensinogen to angiotensin

_________________________ produced by the heart; causes blood volume to decrease



Explain what is meant by the term target cell.


Describe how the nervous system and endocrine system differ in the way they control effectors.


Define the following terms and explain how they relate to hormone action:  synergism, permissiveness, and antagonism.


Explain how the posterior pituitary can be considered to be a specialization of the hypothalamus.


The _____________of the posterior pituitary are equivalent to the neuroglia of the brain.


Explain the importance of Herring bodies.


Name the secretory product produced by the supraoptic nuclei.


Name the secretory product produced by the paraventricular nuclei.


The posterior pituitary is derived from what embryonic tissue?

Define the term antidiuresis.


Discuss the role of the hypothalamic osmoreceptors in ADH secretion.

The function of ADH is to increase _________________ of water by the ________________.

The net result is to ________________ urinary output and blood volume ___________________. Both of these act to help maintain blood pressure.

As the amount of water in the body _________________ the amount of ADH rises.

The uterus and mammary glands are the target organs for _________________.

In the uterus it causes ___________________ of smooth muscle which leads to expulsion of the baby and _______________.

How does oxytocin affect the mammary glands?

Oxytocin secretion is stimulated by nerve impulses from the ______________ during labor or nursing.

The anterior pituitary is derived from what embryonic tissue?


The hypothalamus secretes:


Hormone                             Initial                     Effects                        Disorders


















The anterior pituitary secretes:


Hormone                             Initial                     Effects                        Disorders













Explain the effect of Growth hormone on the following factors and explain why it has its effect.

1. amino acid transport through cell membranes

2. protein synthesis

3. amino acids and proteins

4. fat utilization

5. utilization of glucose for energy

6. glycogen deposition in liver

7. transport of glucose into the cells

8. blood glucose levels

GH affects peptides in the blood called ____________________.
These peptides directly stimulate cartilage and bone.

GH is secreted by the ____________________ in response to _____________ secretion by the _____________________.

GH secretion is inhibited by ________________________ from the _________________.

Thyroid stimulating hormone is secreted by the ____________.
Its target organ is the _________, which secretes ___________ and ______________. The hypothalamus regulates its release by ____________________.

Prolactin affects which target organs? _______________ and
_________________ PRF and PRIF control its secretion and are secreted by the ____________________.

The ovaries and testicles are stimulated by ________________ , which in women initiates the development of ________________ in the ovaries and increases ________________ production. In men it initiates the development of ________________ in the testes.   Its secretion is stimulated by ____________ from the __________.

Name the secretory products of the following cells:  somatotrophs, thyrotrophs, gonadotrophs, lactotrophs, corticotrophs.


Name the cells that secrete the thyroid hormones.


Name the main two thyroid hormones.


Discuss the importance of thyroxine binding globulin and albumin in thyroid hormone transport.


The lobes of the thyroid are connected by the _________________.

The thyroid lobules are composed of spherical units called _______________.

The ___________________ is a protein mass that is found in the thyroid follicle.

If there is insufficient production of thyroid hormone in the fetus or infan the condition is called __________________.   In adults it is called __________________.

Insufficient Iodine results in what condition?

Explain the effect of thyroid hormone on the following factors and why it has its effect.

1. protein synthesis

2. glucose uptake by cells

3. gluconeogenesis

4. absorption by the gastrointestinal tract

5. insulin secretion

6. fat synthesis

7. lipolysis

8. plasma levels of fatty acids

9. body weight

10. cardiovascular system

11. respiration

12. gastrointestinal tract

13. central nervous system



If there is to much thyroid hormone produced the condition is called _____________________. One example would be ______________ disease.

Tetraiodothyroinine is also called ________________.

The function of T3 and T4 is to increase ______________,
____________________, and ____________________.   They also increase the synthesis of ___________________ in the cells.

___________________ is the mineral necessary for the synthesis of thyroxine and T4.

Explain the condition called expothalmos and its causes.


Explain the condition called pretibial myxedema.


Explain the condition called myxedema.


Distinguish between endemic and toxic goiter.

Distinguish between follicular and parafollicular cells.


Calcium levels are regulated by _____________ & _______________.

What are the target organs of calcitonin? It increases the reabsorption of _____________ and _______________.    What effect does this have on the blood? The bones?

Calcitonin secretion is produced by what kind of cells.

____________________hormone is produced by the parathyroid gland.  Its secretion is stimulated by? It has effects on three organs: ______________________, ______________________,  ______________________

The condition where bone becomes deformed and breaks easily (there may be kidney stones) is called ___________________.

How does PTH affect bone?

When blood calcium levels are too low what effect will PTH have on the kidneys? What effect will this have on the blood level of calcium?  What effect will this have on the blood level of phosphorus?

High levels of calcitonin will _______________ the production of PTH.

What are oxyphil cells?

As you get older do the numbers of oxyphil cells increase or decrease?

The cells that secrete PTH are called ________________ cells.

Muscle spasms and tetany are associated with _________________.

If your PTH levels are lowered it would ___________________ Ca++ absorption from the GI tract.

The adrenal glands are found at the upper poles of what organ.


Name the two regions of the adrenal gland and name the embryonic tissues from which they arise.

Name the precursor chemical that gives rise to the products of the adrenal cortex.


The zona glomerulosa produces __________________.

The zona fasciculata produces __________________.

The zona reticularis produces __________________.

Where do you find the chromaffin cells.

_________________ is an important mineralocorticoid. What controls its production?  Where is it produced?

Aldosterone effects what target organs?  It increases the reabsorption of ________________ and the excretion of _________________ by the ________________.

Because of the aldosterone ions are lost in the urine and ____________ and ____________ ion are reabsorbed and _____________ is reabsorbed by osmosis.

Aldosterone helps maintain normal blood pressure and volume by?

Increased blood levels of __________________ions, decreased blood levels of __________________ions or decreased _________________ lead to increased aldosterone secretion.

Aldosterone release is also stimulated by an elevation of the potassium concentration of the fluids surrounding the ______________ glands.

Explain the effect of Aldosterone on the following factors and why it has this effect:

1. Tubular reabsorption of Sodium (by kidneys)

2. Tubular secretion of Potassium (by kidneys)

Tubular secretion of Hydrogen Ions

Blood volume

An enzyme released by the kidneys, ____________________, activates angiotensinogen which is produced in the liver and found in the _____________.

Cortisol is bound to _________________ in the blood.

Cortisol secretion is controlled by _______________ secreted by the ______________. The hypothalamus produces ______________ to stimulate its secretion.

Explain the effect of Cortisol on the following factors and why it has this effect:

1. gluconeogenesis

2. glucose utilization by the cells

3. glucose concentration in blood

4. transport of amino acids into the liver cells

5. transport of amino acids into all other cells

6. protein synthesis in liver cells

7. protein synthesis in all other cells

8. fatty acid concentration in the plasma

9. oxidation of fatty acids by cells

When blood levels of glucose fall rapidly, sympathetic innervation to the adrenal ___________ increase stimulating the secretion of _____________________ and ____________________.  These two hormones stimulate the breakdown of ______________
in adipose tissue. This process is called ___________________.  They also stimulate glycogenolysis in ______________ and ____________ cells. Glycogenolysis is ____________________________________.

The overall effect of these two hormones is to increase blood concentrations of _____________, _____________ and __________.

Addison's disease results from?

What does sympathomimetic mean?

What causes Cushing's syndrome?

The endocrine cells glands of the pancreas are called the ______________. The cell with in the glands are called _____________, ___________, ___________  and __________________ cells.

Glucagon is produced by ___________ cells.

Insulin is produced by ___________ cells.


Somatostatin is produced by __________cells.


Pancreatic polypeptide is produced by _______________cels.

Gluconeogenesis is stimulated by _________________.  Inhibited by __________________.

Lipolysis is stimulated by __________________. Inhibited by _________________.

Blood sugar will be raised by _________________.

Entry of Amino acids into the body's cells is facilitated by _________________.

Blood sugar will be lowered by _______________________.

The conversion of glucose into glycogen and fat (in the liver) is promoted by __________________.

In adipose tissue, the uptake of glucose and fat synthesis is promoted by ___________________.

Protein synthesis is promoted by ____________.

The oxidation of glucose is decreased by__________________.

The main action of glucagon seems to be the ____________________ of glycogen in the liver.

As the blood sugar rises _____________ insulin is secreted.

As the blood sugar falls _____________ glucagon is secreted.

Explain the effect of Insulin on each of the following factors and why it has this effect.

1. Liver uptake, storage and use of glucose

Glucose metabolism in muscle cells

3. Fat synthesis and storage in adipose cells and liver

Protein synthesis and storage

Explain the effect of Glucagon on each of the following factors and why it has this effect.

1. Glycogenolysis and blood glucose levels

2. Gluconeogenesis

Briefly describe the control of insulin secretion.

Summarize the role of the liver, glucagon and insulin in maintaining blood glucose regulation.

Explain why it is imperative that the blood glucose levels be maintained.

Name three tissues that normally can only use glucose as a nutrient.

Explain what happens to the following factors during diabetes: blood glucose concentration, rate of urine excretion, concentration of glucose in the urine, acid base balance in the body fluids, blood concentrations of cholesterol and lipids, and the hydration of the body.

Briefly discuss the basic goal of diabetes treatment and how it is achieved using short acting insulin, long acting insulin and diet.

Describe the characteristics of a diabetic coma and why its treatment is so complex.

Name the region of the brain where the pineal gland is found.


Explain why the pineal gland can be considered a neuroendocrine transducer.


Name the two types of cells found in the pineal gland.


Discuss the importance of the brain sand found in the pineal gland.


Name the region of the body where the thymus is found.


Name the two regions of the thymus.


Compare an infant thymus and a geriatric thymus.


Discuss the importance of the thymus to the immune system.


Name the structure that is a diagnostic feature for the thymic medulla.


Describe the location of the ovary in the abdominal cavity. 


Name the two regions found in the ovary.


Name the hormones produced by the ovaries and briefly discuss their functions.


Name the hormone produced by the corpus luteum and briefly discuss its function.


The placenta produces four hormones: __________________, __________________,__________________, and_________________

Name the hormones produced by the digestive tract and discuss their target tissues and the effects they cause.


Atrial Natriuretic Peptide is produced by the ________________.

Name the target cells for Atrial Natrietic Peptide and discuss the effects they cause.

Vitamin D3 is produced by the skin or absorbed by the digestive tract and is activated by the ____________________.

Erythropoietin is produced by the ___________________.  It is released in response to lowered oxygen levels, this condition is called ______________.


Discuss the functions of the testes.


Name the hormones secreted by the testes, their target cells, and the effects they produce.


Distinguish between the Sertoli cells and Interstitial cells of Leydig and name the hormones secreted by each.


Discuss the importance of the epididymis

Most steroid hormones influence their target cells by?

Name the hormones that would be involved in the following conditions:

____________________ Respiratory paralysis (tetany)

____________________ Polyuria, normal blood glucose levels,
                                             dehydration, excessive thirst

____________________ Cretinism

____________________ Lethargy, hair loss, low BMR, obesity

____________________ Polyuria, high blood glucose, excessive thirst

____________________ Myxedema

____________________ Endemic goiter

____________________ Miscarriage

____________________ Infertility, lack of secondary sex

____________________ Normal body proportions; abnormally small height

The hormone that is the most important regulator of energy production is _________________.

It increases heat production by increasing the rate of _______________ in the cells.

Cellular respiration is increased (in stressful situations) by ___________________ (hormone).

Cellular respiration is regulated in normal situations by ____________________.

Men usually have higher metabolic rates because _______________ increases the metabolic rate to a greater degree than does ______________.

When ADH levels in the plasma are high, the collecting tubules of the kidneys are very _________________ to water.

Renin is secreted by the __________________ apparatus of the kidneys.

Angiotensin is activated as it passes through the _____________.

Angiotensinogen is made in the __________________.

Lowering extracellular calcium levels will stimulate ________________ secretion,

The inhibition of calcium release by the bones is accomplished by _______________________.

The movement of calcium and phosphate from bone into extracellular fluid is caused by ____________________.

High extracellular levels of calcium cause an increased secretion of ____________________.

Hormones whose primary target organs are other endocrine glands are called __________________.

Releasing or inhibiting hormones are produced by the ________________.