PREGNANCY AND DEVELOPMENT
1. Distinguish between the germinal period, embryonic period, and the fetal period.
2. Define the term pluripotent and explain its importance in embryonic development.
3. Define the following terms: blastocyst, chorion, gestation, implantation, morula, neonate, parturition,
senescence, zygote, and trophoblasts.
4. Define the term developmental biology.
between embryology and developmental biology.
6. Distinguish between development and growth.
and contrast mitosis and meiosis.
8. Compare and contrast spermatogenesis and oogenesis.
the two processes necessary to bring the sperm and ovum into proximity.
10. Discuss how the ovum attracts sperm.
11. Describe the events that occur in fertilization.
12. Discuss the role of the corona radiata and zona pellucida in fertilization.
13. Discuss how the ovum prevents fertilization by more than one sperm.
14. Describe the early
stages of development of the human embryo. What are the events that occur during the first week after fertilization.
Describe the transport and implantation of the developing ovum.
16. Discuss how the early ovum derives
its nutrition from the uterus.
17. Compare diffusion through the placenta and the respiratory membrane of the
18. Describe how oxygen, carbon dioxide, and a variety of food substances diffuse through the placenta.
19. Name the developmental stage where the implantation occurs.
Discuss the development of the placenta.
20. Discuss the importance of human chorionic gonadotropin in pregnancy in the first few weeks.
Discuss the function of the estrogen and progesterone produced by the placenta.
22. Discuss the structural
changes between a morula and a blastocysts.
23. Describe the structural features of the placenta.
Describe the hormonal levels of human chorionic gonadotropin, estrogen and progesterone during each trimester.
Outline the developmental changes that occur during the first trimester of pregnancy.
26. Name the embryonic
germ tissues and the tissues that arise from it.
27. Distinguish between histogenesis and organogenesis.
Name the stages of labor and discuss what happens in each.
29. Explain how twins, triplets or other multiple
births can occur naturally.
30. Explain how twins, triplets or other multiple births can occur due to the interference
31. Distinguish between monozygotic and dizogotic twins.
32. Discuss the respiratory, circulatory,
digestive and other changes that occur immediately at the time of birth. Discuss how the process of breathing begins
and discuss the changes that occur in the newborn body. Describe the unique features of the fetal circulation. Discuss the
circulatory changes that occur at birth.
33. Name what each of the following become: foramen ovale, ductus arteriosus, ductus arteriosus, umbilical
vein, and ductus venosus.
34. Define the term meconium.
35. Describe the postnatal periods and discuss the major growth and developmental changes as the child matures.
36. Discuss how the size of the head changes in relationship to the rest of the body as one goes from birth
37. Explain what happens to the fetus when the mother is given an androgenic hormone.
Explain what happens to the fetus when the mother has diabetes.
39. Explain the role of oxytocin in milk
40. Name the three germ layers and list the adult structures derived from them.
41. Describe the formation and importance of the neural plate, neural tube and neural crest cells.
43. Describe the following neural tube defects and discuss how they occur: anencepahly and spina bifida.
44. Discuss the importance of folic acid in preventing neural tube defects.
45. Explain the hormonal mechanisms that prevent lactation before birth but cause it after birth.
the nutritional needs of the newborn.
47. Name the organs of the newborn that are not fully developed at birth.
48. Discuss the factors that increase uterine contractility at the end of pregnancy.
what Braxton Hicks contractions are and discuss their importance.
50. Explain why uterine contractions are weak,
painless and brief in the early stages.
51. Explain what we mean by the term 'her water broke'.
Discuss the mechanisms that regulate parturition. Name the feedback system that plays a major role in enhancing contractions.
53. Discuss the importnce of Apgar Scores.
54. Discuss the changes that occur in the maternal systems during pregnancies.
55. Discuss the
changes that occur in the uterus during pregnancy.
56. Discuss the effects of aging on each of the following
body systems: skeletal, muscular, nervous, endocrine, digestive, urinary, cardiovascular, and immune.
the terms artherosclerosis, arteriosclerosis, and hypertension.
58. Explain how they
are related to aging.
59. Discuss the structural changes that may result from changes in bone calcification
as we age.
60. Explain how exercise may reduce some of the annoying and dangerous effects of aging.
the following clinical conditions and procedures:
61. cesarean section,
63. tubal pregnancy,
65. abruptio placentae,
71. congenital abnormalities,
75. in vitro
76. fetal alcohol syndrome,
78. ectopic pregnancy,
79. gestational neoplasm,
80. Discuss the characteristics of death and explain why cessation of heart beat and breathing are no longer sufficient
to declare one dead.