Name the areas of the embryo and adult human where hematopoiesis occurs.
Briefly discuss the importance of colony stimulating factors in hematopoiesis.
Distinguish between apoptosis and necrosis.
Explain the importance of the bone marrow to the immune system.
Explain the importance of secretory Ig A.
Compare and contrast active and passive immunity
Explain how naturally acquired immunity can occur.
Explain how artificially acquired immunity can occur.
Define the term antigen and briefly discuss their characteristics.
Distinguish between multivalence and monovalence.
Define the term hapten.
Explain the importance of the hapten-carrier complex.
Explain the importance of epitopes (antigenic determinant sites)
Draw a typical antibody and label its parts
Briefly discuss the functions of the Fc and Fab fragments.
Explain the importance of the variable region of the antibody molecule.
Explain what determines the class to which an antibody belongs.
Briefly explain how antibody diversity is achieved.
Define the term antibody specificity.
Define the term antibody affinity.
Name the five classes of immunoglobins and discuss their functions.
Describe the effects of antigen binding.
Explain the process of opsonization and name the molecules that can accomplish this.
Name the immunoglobin that can pass through the placenta.
Name the immunoglobin most prevalent in the pool of immunoglobin pool.
Discuss the two tenets of the clonal selection theory.
Name the two cell populations that are produced after exposure to the antigen.
Explain the role of adjuvants.
Distinguish between a serum and an antiserum
Distinguish between the primary and anamenestic response.
Describe how monoclonal and catalytic antibodies function .
Define the following terms: paracrine, autocrine, and endocrine.
Define the term cytokine, monokine, lymphokine, interleukin, and colony stimulating factor and briefly describe the characteristics of each.
Explain how cytokines play a role in nonspecific immunity
Discuss how cytokines can activate effector cells.
Describe how interleukins 1, 2 and 3 work.
Describe how interferon alpha, beta and gamma work.
Explain how cytokines effect nonspecific immunity
Explain how cytokines activate effector cells.
Explain how cytokines affect mature immune cells
Explain how cytokines affect immature immune cells.
Discuss the sequence of activation in B cell activation.
Discuss the role of interleukins 1 and 6 in B cell activation
Name the interleukins produced by the helper T cell clone and their function
Explain the importance of B cell differentiation factor and name the cell that makes it.
Distinguish between T dependent activation and T-independent activation
Define the term mitogen
Name the three cells involved in T-dependent antigen activation
Discuss the function of antigen presenting cells.
Discuss the role of the major histocompatability complex molecules and describe the role of the three MHC classes.
Describe antigen processing. How would this process differ for endogenous and exogenous antigens.
Discuss the interaction between T cells and B cells.
Discuss the process of affinity maturation.
Discuss the process of class switching.
Name the molecules that will initiate a T independent type I response.
Name the molecules that will initiate a T independent type II response.
List the differences between T dependent and T independent type I and II triggering
Describe the various functions of T helper cells.
Discuss the role of CD4 T cells in the immune response.
Briefly describe how T helper cells are activated by costimulation
Distinguish between regulator and effector T cells.
Discuss how activation of T cells occurs.
Distinguish between cytotoxic T cells and Cytotoxic T lymphocytes.
Discuss how T cells kill target cells.
Explain acquired immune tolerance and the three ways it might occur.
Discuss the role of delayed hypersensitivity T helper cells.
Briefly describe the three types of effector cells and how they function.
Compare and contrast B cells and T cells.
Discuss how Natural Killer cells kill target cells.
Define the term superantigen.
Discuss the mechanisms of the four types of hypersensitivity reactions.
Distinguish between localized and systemic anaphylaxis.
Discuss the processes that occur in allergic rhinitis and bronchial asthma.
Discuss the processes that occur in farmers lung (aspergillosis)
Discuss the processes that occur in the tuberculin skin test.
Explain how an autoimmune disease might occur.
Distinguish between autoimmunity and an autoimmune disorder.
Name the factors that can affect autoimmune disorders.
Distinguish between allografts and xenografts.
Define the term immunologically privileged and name several body areas that are immunoprivileged.
Explain how tissue rejection occurs.
Explain the role of MHC markers in tissue rejection.
Explain why cyclosporin is used when a person has a transplant.
Describe an immunodeficiency and explain how they might occur.
Distinguish between primary and secondary immunodeficiency.
Describe how antibodies function.
Explain how antibody-antigen binding occurs.
Discuss the basis for antibody specificity
Distinguish between alternate and classical activation of complement.
Explain the membrane attack complex and how it leads to cell lysis.
Explain the role of C3a and C5a in an animals defenses against gram negative bacteria.
Explain how the following occur: toxin neutralization, viral neutralization, antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity, and osponization.